'Ivrim

The Letter to the Hebrews

The Book of Hebrews Unveils Messiah as Our Cohen HaGadol - the High Priest in the Order of Malkitsedek 


Introductory Remarks

Singular yrIb.[i "ivri" - Hebrew, either a. put into the mouth of foreigners (Egypt. and Philist.), or b. used to distinguish Isr. from foreigners (= one from beyond, from the other side, i.e. prob. (in Heb. trad.) from beyond the Euphrates

rb;[': vb. pass over, through, by, pass on

rb,[ρe: n. m. region across or beyond, side

Authorship of Hebrews

Sha’ul (Paul)? – Many early believers thought so

Luke? Some think Sha’ul wrote the book in Hebrew language and Luke translated it into Greek – (the Greek of Hebrews is "good Greek")

Thomas Aquinas – "Luke, who was an excellent advocate, translated it from Hebrew into that elegant Greek"

2nd century author?, Priscilla?

Date of Writing

A near quote by Clement of Rome, c.96CE

12:4"You have not yet resisted unto blood"

The literary present tense: 10:6 And these having been prepared like this, the priests always are going into the first part of the Tent, accomplishing the services. 7 But into the second part the high priest goes alone once a year, not without blood, which he offers for himself and for sins of ignorance of the people,

=Probably before 70CE

Canonicity

From the earliest times, it was accepted among the writings of Sha’ul and was considered authoritative like Sha’uls others letters

In 2nd Cent, became part of the corpus Paulinum, occupying second place after Romans, but in other manuscripts, other places

Its teaching about priesthood of Messiah

Chapter 1 - Messiah's Excellent Name

Elohim Has Spoken in the Past

1 At many times and in many ways in the past Elohim having spoken to the fathers by the prophets,

Yah has communicated to man through dreams, visions, directly, through a donkey, by a still small voice,….

The fathers = Avraham, Yitzak, Ya’acov, Moshe,

Prophets = Avraham, Melki-Tzedek, etc

The Son

2 in these last days has spoken to us by the Son, whom He has appointed heir of all, through whom also He made the ages,

ui`o,j "hwee-os" son; descendant, offspring, heir; (with gen.) often one who shares a special relationship with or a likeness to someone or something; disciple, follower

Heir of All Things

Ber 13:15; 22:17,18

Parable of the Wicked Tenants, Mat 21:34

Gal 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Avraham and to his descendant. Scripture does not say, "and to the descendants," referring to many, but "and to your descendant," referring to one, who is Messiah.

Who Is Yahusha’?

3 who being the brightness of the esteem (doxa) and the exact representation of His substance, and sustaining all by the word of His power,

avpau,gasma "apaugasma" brightness, radiance, effulgence, flood of resplendent light, outshining

carakth,r "character" exact likeness, full expression

Colossians 1 – Who is Yahusha’?

15 He is the image of the invisible Elohim, the firstborn over all creation,

eivkw,n "eikon" f likeness, image; form, appearance; statue

19 For Elohim was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in the Son

The Physical Expression of Elohim

Yahuchanon 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with Elohim, and the Word was Elohim. 2 The Word was with Elohim in the beginning.

14 Now the Word became flesh and took up residence among us. We saw his splendor (doxa, or "esteem")…

18 No one has ever seen Elohim. The only one, himself Elohim, who is in the bosom of the Father, has made Elohim known ("explained, revealed")

Our Master and High Priest

3 having made a cleansing of our sins through Himself, sat down at the right hand of the Greatness on high,

Colossians 1:20 and through him to reconcile all things to himself by making peace through the blood of his stake

He Sat Down

Tehillah 110:1,2 A psalm of David. An oracle of Yahuwah to my Master: "Sit down at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool!" Yahuwah extends your dominion from Zion.

A Shavuot Psalm

Yahusha’ was coroneted as king and anointed as High Priest on Shavuot

The More Excellent Name

4 having become so much better than the messengers, as He has inherited a more excellent Name than them.

a;ggeloj "angelos" angel, messenger, one who is sent

How did he "inherit" a Name?

Because he fulfills the promise made to Avraham of a seed, who would inherit the world

The Proof is in the Scriptures

5 For to which of the messengers did He ever say, "You are My Son, today I have brought You forth"? And again, "I shall be to Him a Father, and He shall be to Me a Son"?

Tehillah 2:7 (read all of Ps 2)

2 Shmu’el 7:14 Is this talking about Shlomo or Messiah?

The Birth of Messiah

6 And when He again brings the first born into the world, He says, "Let all the messengers of Elohim do reverence to Him."

Hebrew Devarim 32:43 Cry out, nations, with his people, for he will avenge his servants' blood; he will take vengeance against his enemies, and make atonement for his land and people.

LXX and Dead Sea Scrolls: 43 Cry out, nations, with his people, and let all the angels worship him; he will take vengeance against his enemies, and make atonement for his land and people.

What About the Messengers?

7 And of the messengers indeed He says, "... who is making His messengers spirits and His servants a flame of fire."

Tehillah 104:1 Praise Yahuwah, my soul! Yahuwah my Elohim, you are magnificent. You are robed in splendor and majesty.

2 He covers himself with light as if it were a garment. He stretches out the skies like a tent curtain,

3 and lays the beams of the upper rooms of his palace on the rain clouds. He makes the clouds his chariot, and travels along on the wings of the wind.

4 He makes the winds his messengers, and the flaming fire his attendant.

Yahusha’ Receives the Crown

8 But to the Son He says, "Your throne, Elohim, is forever and ever, a sceptre of straightness is the sceptre of Your reign.

9 "You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness. Because of this, Elohim, Your Elohim, has anointed You with the oil of gladness more than Your companions."

Tehillah 45 – A Psalm About David or Messiah?

6 Your throne, Elohim, is permanent. The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of justice.

7 You love justice and hate evil. For this reason Elohim, your Elohim has anointed you with the oil of joy, elevating you above your companions.

The Unchanging Nature of Yah

10 And, "You, Master, did found the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of Your hands.

11 "They shall perish, but You remain. And they shall all grow old like a garment,

12 and like a mantle You shall fold them up, and they shall be changed. But You are the same, and Your years shall not fail."

Quoting Tehillah 102:25-27

He Sat Down on Elohim’s Seat

13 And to which of the messengers did He ever say, "Sit at My right hand, until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet"?

Tehillah 110:1

Messiah Yahusha’ stands supreme over the messengers because of who he is. He is Creator, Sustainer, Savior, King and High Priest.

Messiah = Anointed One, both as King and High Priest and Inheritor

The Purpose of Angels

14 Are they not all serving spirits sent out to attend those who are about to inherit deliverance?

The angels, as documented in Tehillah 104:4, are merely servants. Servants of Yahuwah, sent specifically to minister (help) those who are inheriting the deliverance Yah brings to his faithful ones

The Name That is Above Every Name

Phillipians 2: 5 You should have the same attitude toward one another that Messiah Yahusha had,

6 who though he existed in the form of Elohim did not regard equality with Elohim as something to be grasped (held onto),

7 but emptied himself by taking on the form of a slave, by looking like other men, and by sharing in human nature.

8 He humbled himself, by becoming obedient to the point of death--even death on a stake!

9 As a result Elohim exalted him and gave him the name that is above every name,

10 so that at the name of Yahusha every knee will bow--in heaven and on earth and under the earth-11 and every tongue confess that Yahusha Messiah is Yahuwah to the splendor of Elohim the Father.

Chapter 2 - Guarding What We Have Heard

1 Because of this, it is necessary all the more to pay more attention to the things we have heard, lest we drift away.

prose,cw "prosecho" pay close attention to, hold on to, give oneself to,

In the LXX, translates the Hebrew - "shamar" – as in "yevarechecha Yahuwah veyishmarecha" - be on guard, watch, be careful

Guarding Yourself

Devarim 4:1-9

8 And what other great nation has rules and right-rulings as pure as this whole instruction that I am about to share with you today?

9 Again, however, pay very careful attention, lest you forget the things you have seen and disregard them for the rest of your life; instead make them known to your children and grandchildren.

Verse 9, literally, "Only guard yourself and guard your life exceedingly, lest…"

Danger of Drifting Away?

pararre,w "pararre-o" to flow past, to glide by, lest we be carried past, pass by (R. V. drift away from them) (missing the thing),

Can we miss it? Can we actually drift away from our relationship with our Creator?

Of course it is a real and present danger. Why else would Sha’ul be warning us?

Devarim 4 warns us not to forget (drift away from) the Words

See also 3:6 – Our "holding on" is essential to our remaining among the recipients of the promise

The Even-Handedness of Elohim

2 For if the word spoken through messengers proved to be firm, and every transgression and disobedience received a right reward,

3 how shall we escape if we neglect so great a deliverance,

Sha’ul is alluding to Mt Sinai where Mosheh delivered a firm message of obedience to the rules and right-rulings

The Torah is "Firm"

be,baioj "bebai-os" – strong, denoting that which is reliable and firm, well-founded; confirmed, verified; effective

The Instruction (Torah) is unchanging – these rules were given "forever" (and even written in stone!)

Transgression - doing what is forbidden

Disobedience - not doing what is commanded

Qal VeChomer

"Light and heavy" – a rhetorical device of the rabbis in debating – argues from a lesser thing to a greater thing

If transgression of Torah brings negative consequences, how much more disregarding the revelation of the Son

"Escape" is used in the context of the final judgment – Rom 2:3; Ivrim 12:25

Yah Testifies of and Verifies the Message

3b which first began to be spoken by the Master, and was confirmed to us by those that heard,

4 Elohim also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Set-apart Spirit, distributed according to His own desire?

Yahusha’ announced the gospel - "repent, for the kingdom of heaven has arrived"

By the mouth of 2 or 3 witnesses, a thing is established

Signs of healings, and at Shavuot

The Promises Were Not Given to the Messengers

5 For it is not to messengers that He has subjected the world to come, concerning which we speak.

Devarim 32:8 When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he divided up mankind, he set the boundaries of the peoples, according to the number of the sons of Yisrael.

This verse in the LXX (number of the angels of Elohim) is the basis for the Rabbinical believe that angels administer the present world

But, though angels rule the present age, Sha’ul is proving that Messiah will administer the world to come

The Creation Subject to Man

6 But somewhere one has witnessed, saying, "What is man that You remember him, or the son of man that You look after him?

7 "You have made him a little lower than the messengers. You have crowned him with esteem and respect, and set him over the works of Your hands.

8 "You have put all in subjection under his feet." For in that He put all in subjection under him, He left none that is not subjected to him.

"Somewhere one has witnessed"

Shaul in Ivrim, when quoting Tanak does not name the writer. He only vaguely alludes to the penman.

The Scriptures are seen, to him, to be a product of the Ruach HaKodesh.

Remember: 2 Peter 1:20 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation.

2 Tim 3:16 All Scripture is Elohim-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness

Tehillah 8

4 What is Enosh ("human"), that you should remember him? What is the son of Adam ("man"), that you should appoint him,

5 You decreased him from Elohim, You crowned him with esteem and splendor;

LXX uses "angelos" in place of Elohim

Elsewhere, benay Elohim = angels

5 has a double meaning – 1)mankind and 2)Messiah

Man’s Appointment at Creation

Bereshith 1:27 Elohim created mankind in his own image, in the image of Elohim he created them, male and female he created them.

28 Elohim blessed them and said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply! Fill the earth and subdue it! Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and every creature that moves on the ground."

Yahusha’ Revealed as the Esteemed One

8b But now we do not yet see all subjected to him.

9 But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the messengers, Yahusha, because of the suffering of death crowned with esteem and respect, that by the favour of Elohim He should taste death for everyone.

Creation Not Yet Subjected

Romans 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility--not willingly but because of Elohim who subjected it--in hope

21 that the creation itself will also be set free from the bondage of decay into the glorious freedom of Elohim's children.

22 For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers together until now.

Yahusha’ Fulfills Tehillah 8

9 But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the messengers, Yahusha‘

Tehillah 8:5 You decreased him from Elohim, You crowned him with esteem and splendor;

This is likely what Sha’ul is speaking of in Phillipians 2

Phillipians 2

5 You should have the same attitude toward one another that Messiah Yahusha had,

6 who though he existed in the form of Elohim did not regard equality with Elohim as something to be grasped,

7 but emptied himself by taking on the form of a slave, by looking like other men, and by sharing in human nature.

8 He humbled himself, by becoming obedient to the point of death--even death on a stake!

9 As a result Elohim exalted him and gave him the name that is above every name,

Messiah Made Perfect? What?

10 For it was fitting for Him, because of whom all are and through whom all are, in bringing many sons to esteem, to make the Princely Leader of their deliverance perfect through sufferings.

Messiah had to experience our pain before he could properly deliver us from it.

Thus, he was made perfect=complete

He is the only one, who dying, could have victory over death - resurrection

Yahusha’ Had to be a Brother

11 For both He who sets apart and those who are being set apart are all of One, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brothers,

The representative must be part of the group he is representing – Thus Yahusha’ had to be human to rescue humans

The Tanak Announced This

12 saying, "I shall announce Your Name to My brothers, in the midst of the congregation I shall sing praise to You."

13 And again, "I shall put My trust in Him." And again, "See, I and the children whom Elohim gave Me."

Tehillah 22:22 a messianic psalm (24 not hiding his face)

Yeshayahu 8:17,18 the Messiah is speaking – Yahuwah is hiding his face

Sharing in Humanity

14 Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself similarly shared in the same, so that by means of His death He might destroy him having the power of death, that is, the devil,

15 and deliver those who throughout life were held in slavery by fear of death.

Death and judgment is feared (Ivrim 9:27)

Who Does He Take Hold of?

16 For, doubtless, He does not take hold of messengers, but He does take hold of the seed of Avraham.

evpilamba,nomai ("epilambanomai") take, take hold of; seize, catch; arrest (Ac 21.33); help, be concerned about or assume the nature of

He did not come to redeem angels, but man

Why not angels?

Summary

17 So in every way He had to be made like His brothers, in order to become a compas sionate and trustworthy High Priest in matters related to Elohim, to make atonement for the sins of the people.

18 For in what He had suffered, Himself being tried, He is able to help those who are tried.

The one who experiences is able to understand, sympathize and empathize with others experiencing the problems.

Chapter 3 - Warnings From the Wilderness

1 Therefore, set-apart brothers, partakers of the heavenly calling, closely consider the Emissary and High Priest of our confession, Messiah Yahusha,

2 who was trustworthy to Him who appointed Him, as also Mosheh in all His house.

3 For this One has been deemed worthy of more esteem than Mosheh, as much as He who built the house enjoys more respect than the house.

4 For every house is built by someone, but He who built all is Elohim.

5 And Mosheh indeed was trustworthy in all His house as a servant, for a witness of what would be spoken later,

6 but Messiah as a Son over His own house, whose house we are if we hold fast the boldness and the boasting of the expectation firm to the end.

7 Therefore, as the Set-apart Spirit says, "Today, if you hear His voice,

8 do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, in the day of trial in the wilderness,

9 where your fathers tried Me, proved Me, and saw My works forty years.

10 "Therefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, ‘They always go astray in their heart, and they have not known My ways.’

11 "As I swore in My wrath, ‘If they shall enter into My rest ...’ "

12 Look out, brothers, lest there be in any of you a wicked heart of unbelief in falling away from the living Elohim,

13 but encourage one another daily, while it is called "Today," lest any of you be hardened by the deceivableness of sin.

14 For we have become partakers of Messiah if we hold fast the beginning of our trust firm to the end,

15 while it is said, "Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion."

16 For who, having heard, rebelled? Was it not all who came out of Mitsrayim, led by Mosheh?

17 And with whom was He grieved forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose corpses fell in the wilderness?

18 And to whom did He swear that they would not enter into His rest, but to those who did not obey?

19 So we see that they were unable to enter in because of unbelief.

Consider Yahusha’

3:1 Therefore, set-apart brothers, partakers of the heavenly calling, closely consider the Emissary and High Priest of our confession, Messiah Yahusha,

katanoe,w – "katano-e-o" 1. to perceive, remark, observe, understand: 2. to consider attentively, fix one's eyes or mind upon, ponder

Luke 12:24,27; Acts 11:6; James 1:23,24

Our Confession

o`mologi,a - "homologia" –

1. agreement

2. an assent, admission, concession, "by my admission"

3. an agreement made, compact, esp. in war, terms of surrender

This is a "covenant term"

2 Co. 9:13; 1 Tim. 6:12, 13; Heb. 3:1; 4:14; 10:23

Messiah is the Builder of the House

3 For this One has been deemed worthy of more esteem than Mosheh, as much as He who built the house enjoys more respect than the house.

4 For every house is built by someone, but He who built all is Elohim.

Yahusha’ created all (built all) and is the Son – the recipient of the Inheritance – and He is Elohim!

Things to Come

5 And Mosheh indeed was trustworthy in all His house as a servant, for a witness of what would be spoken later,

The Torah Moshe delivered pictured what was to be fulfilled by Messiah the Seed

The two centerpieces of worship were the House and the Time

The House pictured Elohim dwelling with men based upon the work of the priests – the shedding of blood

The moedim depict the timing and substance of those events which were to come about

Elohim’s House – His Inheritance

6 but Messiah as a Son over His own house, whose house we are

We are his House – the recipients of the Inheritance

Mattityahu 16:18 "I tell you that you are Peter, and upon this Rock (his Confession that Yahusha’ is Messiah), I will raise up my congregation"

The Conditional Covenant – "If we keep it from slipping away"

6 but Messiah as a Son over His own house, whose house we are if we hold fast the boldness and the boasting of the expectation.

kate,cw - "katecho" to hold back, detain, retain … to keep from going away; to hold fast, keep secure

The Ruach HaKodesh Speaks…

7 Therefore, as the Set-apart Spirit says, "Today, if you hear His voice

Shaul in Ivrim, when quoting Tanak does not name the writer. He only vaguely alludes to the penman.

The Scriptures are seen, to him, to be a product of the Ruach HaKodesh.

Sha’ul quotes Tehillah 95:7-11

Tehillah 95

7 Today, if only you would obey him!

8 "Do not be stubborn like they were at Meribah, like they were that day at Massah in the wilderness,

9 where your ancestors challenged my authority, and tried my patience, even though they had seen my work.

10 For forty years I loathed that generation, and I said, 'These people go astray in the heart; they have not known my paths.'

11 So I made a vow in my anger, 'They will never enter into my resting place."

Today

~AY©h;χ - "hayom"

Today = anytime you hear his Word

If You Will Hear His Voice

W[m'(v.ti AlοqoB.-~ai(

From shema – hear, listen, pay attention to, obey

Shemot 23: 20 I am going to send an angel before you, to protect you in the way, and to bring you into the place which I have prepared.

21 Take heed because of him, and obey his voice; do not rebel against him, for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him.

22 But if you diligently obey him, and do all that I speak, then I will be an enemy to your enemies, and I will be an adversary to your adversaries.

Do Not Harden Your Hearts

hv'q' "shaqa" be hard, severe, fierce -- Qal 1. be hard, difficult (of a legal case) 2. be hard, severe (of Yah, in judgment); of wrath; of fierce words. Niph. hardly bestead, hard pressed. Pi. made hard Hiph. 1. make difficult, difficulty. 2. make severe, burdensome, yoke imposed by king. 3. a. make hard, stiff, stubborn, fig. of obstinacy. b. shew stubbornness

Meribah and Massa

Shemot 17:1-7

Meribah – strife, contention, quarrel

Massa – despair, test, trial, proving

They rebelled 10 times!

Bemidbar 20:1-24

The Oath

11 So I made a vow in my anger, 'They will never enter into my resting place."

yti(x'Wnm.-la, !Waͺboy>χ-~ai Literally "if they will enter into my rest"

>χ~ai in oaths frequently means an emphatic "NOT"

Bemidbar 14:22 For all the people have seen my splendor and my signs that I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and yet have tempted me now these ten times, and have not obeyed me, 23 they will by no means see the land that I swore to their fathers, nor will any of them who despised me see it.

My Rest

"My Rest" - Ps. 95:11; 132:14; Yeshayahu 66:1

hx'Wnm., "menuchah" resting-place, rest

Gen. 49:15; Num. 10:33; Deut. 12:9; Jdg. 20:43; Ruth 1:9; 2 Sam. 14:17; 1 Ki. 8:56; 1 Chr. 22:9; 28:2; Ps. 23:2; 95:11; 132:8, 14; Isa. 11:10; 28:12; 32:18; 66:1; Jer. 45:3; 51:59; Mic. 2:10; Zech. 9:1

Usually a reference to the inheritance of Promised Land

The Admonition

12 Look out, brothers, lest there be in any of you a wicked heart of unbelief in falling away from the living Elohim,

13 but encourage one another daily, while it is called "Today," lest any of you be hardened by the deceivableness of sin.

The wicked heart is a wandering heart (Ps 95:10)

Daily = "when you sit at home and when you walk along the way, when you lie down and when you rise up…"

Who Are the "Partakers"?

14 For we have become partakers of Messiah if we hold fast the beginning of our trust firm to the end,

me,tocoj, one who shares in, partner; companion, comrade

"hold fast" (katecho again)

The beginning of our trust = the commands of Scripture which pointed us to Messiah

They are to be held firm (just as Torah was described as "Firm")

The Examples of Those Who "Fell Away" (the 3 Questions)

Who provoked him?

With whom was he angry?

To whom did he swear that they would not enter his rest?

Unbelief = disobedience

"Unbelief" is a deliberate, intentional refusal to obey the instructions of Yahuwah

Chapter 4 - Entering Elohim's Rest

3:7 Therefore, as the Set-apart Spirit says, "Today, if you hear His voice,

8 do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, in the day of trial in the wilderness,

9 where your fathers tried Me, proved Me, and saw My works forty years.

10 "Therefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, ‘They always go astray in their heart, and they have not known My ways.’

11 "As I swore in My wrath, ‘If they shall enter into My rest ...’ "

Tehillah 95

7 Today, if only you would obey him!

8 "Do not be stubborn like they were at Meribah, like they were that day at Massah in the wilderness,

9 where your ancestors challenged my authority, and tried my patience, even though they had seen my work.

10 For forty years I loathed that generation, and I said, 'These people go astray in the heart; they have not known my paths.'

11 So I made a vow in my anger, "If they will enter into my resting place."

The Oath

3:11 So I made a vow in my anger, 'They will never enter into my resting place."

yti(x'Wnm.-la, !Waͺboy> -~ai Literally "if they will enter into my rest"

>~ai in oaths frequently means an emphatic "NOT"

Bemidbar 14:22 For all the people have seen my splendor and my signs that I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and yet have tempted me now these ten times, and have not obeyed me, 23 If they should see the land (uses the same Hebrew construction as above) that I swore to their fathers, and all who have despised me will not see it. (see also v30)

We find many occurrences of °im in oath contexts in which, in reality, a larger context is assumed. In the larger, assumed context is an oath, only rarely stated in full (2Kings 9:26; cc Job 1:11).

Sometimes the oath involves a negative as in 2Sam 19:14. David is here promising to make Amasa his new commander in place of Yoab. He calls on Yahuwah to judge him severely (the judgment is never spelled out, perhaps because it is so awful as to be unspeakable) if Amasa is not to be David's commander.

Other examples of the full oath are found in 1Kings 20:10 (used by Ben-Hadad), 2Kings 6:31 (also Ben-Hadad). This suggests that the oath was in broader use than Israel alone, among the Semites at any rate.

From this fuller form of the oath, we see the practice frequently of abbreviating the oath, omitting "Yahuwah do so to me and more also." Thus in Gen 14:23, "If I shall take a thread or a sandal-thong or if I shall take from anything which is yours" or in other words "I will not take." Other examples of this abbreviated form, even at times apparently Yah swearing by himself, are as follows: Num 14:30 (Yah declaring that none except Caleb and Joshua will come in "___ if you will come in" = "you will not come in"; 1Sam 17:55, "_____ if I know" = "I do not know," etc.

Katapausis – Resting place

kata,pausij, place of rest; rest

1. actively, a putting to rest: 2. In the Greek Scriptures (the Septuagint several times for hx'Wnm.) intransitive, a resting, rest:

Acts 7:49 (quoting Yeshayahu 66:1); Ivrim 3:11, 18; 4:1, 3, 5, 10, 11

Septuagint Translation

Psalm 94:11 w`j w;mosa evn th/| ovrgh/| mou eiv eivseleu,sontai eivj th.n kata,pausi,n mou

"As I swore in my anger, ‘If they shall enter into my rest.’"

The Greek was translated literally and not idiomatically!

What is The "Rest"

Some of the suggested answers:

Entering into Bliss at Death

Heaven as the Reward

The Promised Land

Life in Messiah (the Christian life)

Sabbath-keeping

Something else?

"Rest" in TaNaK

"My Rest" - Ps. 95:11; 132:14; Yeshayahu 66:1 "my resting place"

hx'Wnm., "menuchah" resting-place, rest

His dwelling place: 1 Chr. 22:9; Yesh 11:10; 66:1: Teh 132:8,14;

The Promised Land: Dev 12:9; 1 Ki. 8:56;

Security: Yesh 28:12; Mic. 2:10; Ruth 1:9; 2 Sam. 14:17; Ps. 23:2; Yesh 32:18

A resting place: Ber 49:15; Bem 10:33; 1 Chron 28:2;

A Sabbath Rest

Hebrews 4:1-16

1 Therefore, let us fear, lest, by leaving behind a promise of entering into His rest, one among you seems to have come up short.

2 For indeed the proclamation was brought to us as well as to them, but the message of the report did not profit them, not having been put together with belief in those who heard it.

3 For we who have believed enter into that rest, just as He has said, "As I swore in My wrath, if they shall enter into My rest..." And yet His works took place with the laying down of the cosmos.

4 For somewhere He has spoken about the seventh day in this way: "And Elohim rested on the seventh day from all His works,"

5 and in this again, "If they shall enter into My rest..."

6 Since then it remains for some to enter into it, and those who formerly received the proclamation did not enter in because of disobedience,

7 Again, He appointed a certain day, "Today," saying through Dawid so much later, as it has been said, "Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts."

8 For if Yahusha had given them rest, He would not have spoken of another day after those things.

 

9 So there remains a Sabbath-keeping for the people of Elohim.

10 For the one who has entered into His rest has himself also rested from his works, as Elohim rested from His own.

11 Let us therefore do our utmost to enter into that rest, lest anyone fall after the same example of disobedience.

 

12 For alive is the Word of Elohim, and active, and sharper than any two-edged sword, cutting through even to the dividing of being and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.

13 And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all are naked and exposed before the eyes of Him with whom is our account.

Why Be Afraid?

1 Therefore, let us fear, lest, by leaving behind a promise of entering into His rest, one among you seems to have come up short.

The "one among you" is the one who is theoretically "leaving behind" or "passing by" the promise

Should we be "afraid"?

Fearing Yahuwah: Dev 5:29 If only it would really be their desire to fear me and keep all my commandments in the future, so that it may go well with them and their descendants forever.

Combining the Message With Faith (Obedience)

2 For indeed the proclamation was brought to us as well as to them, but the message of the report did not profit them, not having been put together with belief in those who heard it.

The "gospel" is the same – it’s the everlasting gospel – the offer of Covenant relationship to Yahuwah

Unbelief=Disobedience

Faith=Obedience

3 For we who have believed enter into that rest, just as He has said, "As I swore in My wrath, if they shall enter into My rest..." And yet His works took place with the laying down of the cosmos.

4 For somewhere He has spoken about the seventh day in this way: "And Elohim rested on the seventh day from all His works,"

5 and in this again, "If they shall enter into My rest..."

What "Rest" is He Talking About?

Those who believe (obey) enter the rest

How is the Oath relevant to those who believe?

What "works" did Elohim "rest" from?

What is Elohim’s "rest"?

What specifically does this imply about the meaning of "rest" for "those who believe"?

6 Since then it remains for some to enter into it, and those who formerly received the proclamation did not enter in because of disobedience,

7 Again, He appointed a certain day, "Today," saying through David so much later, as it has been said, "Today, if you hear His voice, do not harden your hearts."

8 For if Yahusha had given them rest, He would not have spoken of another day after those things.

The "Rest" Remains

Since then it remains = The promise to bring Avraham and his seed into the Land has not yet been fulfilled

The "appointed time" to agree to the Covenant is "Today"

Yahusha’ son of Nun did not fulfill the prophesy when he led the sons of Yisrael into Cana’an.

9 So there remains a Sabbath-keeping for the people of Elohim.

10 For he who has entered into his rest has himself also rested from his works, as Elohim rested from His own.

11 Let us therefore do our utmost to enter into that rest, lest anyone fall after the same example of disobedience.

Sabbatismos

sabbatismo,j

1. a keeping sabbath.

2. the blessed rest from toils and troubles looked for in the age to come

Another lexicon says: period of rest, Sabbath rest; figuratively in HE 4.9, as a state of spiritual rest entered into by a commitment made in faith (this "figurative" meaning is an attempt to explain away the obvious ramifications of the plain meaning of the word)

(Give me a break!)

Sabbatismos means "a Sabbath keeping"

Let’s not try to change it’s meaning to fit one’s theology!

Verse 10 – 2 interpretations

Yahusha’ has entered into his rest ( a reference to his resurrection and exaltation) as a result of his resting from his own works (Sabbath-keeping rest) just as Elohim did from his.

The believer "rests" from his own work – this is a reference to abstaining from occupational work on the 7th day – "just as Elohim did from His"

The Exhortation

"Let us enter into THAT REST"

Sabbath-keeping rest

Do our utmost spouda,zw do one's best, spare no effort, work hard

Isn’t it ironic that we are to "work hard" at resting?

We are not to follow their example of disobedience in the desert

12 For alive is the Word of Elohim, and active, and sharper than any two-edged sword, cutting through even to the dividing of being and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.

13 And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all are naked and exposed before the eyes of Him with whom is our account.

The Living Word of Elohim

Yeshayahu 55:11

Acts 7:38

1 Peter 1:23

Tehillah 149:5 Let the righteous rejoice because of their vindication! Let them shout for joy upon their beds! 6 May they praise Elohim while they hold a two-edged sword in their hand, 7 in order to take revenge on the nations, and punish foreigners.

The "living" Word of Elohim will act in judgment on those who refuse to Shema

Chapter 5 - Yahusha Our Cohen Gadol (High Priest)

Ivrim 4:14-5:10

14 Therefore, since we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Yahusha the Son of Elohim, let us hold fast our Agreement.

15 For we do not have a High Priest unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who was tried in all respects as we are, apart from sin.

16 Therefore, let us come boldly to the seat of favor, in order to receive compassion, and find favor for timely help.

 

5:1 For every priest taken from among men is appointed on behalf of men in matters relating to Elohim, to offer both gifts and offerings for sins,

2 being able to have sympathy for those not knowing and being led astray, since he himself is also surrounded by weakness.

3 And on account of this he has to offer for sins – as for the people, so also for himself.

4 And no one obtains this esteem for himself, but he who is called by Elohim, even as Aharon also was.

5 So also the Messiah did not extol Himself to become High Priest, but it was He who said to Him, "You are My Son, today I have brought You forth."

6 As He also says in another place, "You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitsedeq,

 

7 who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and petitions with strong crying and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, and was heard because of His reverent fear,

8 though being a Son, He learned obedience by what He suffered.

9 And having been made complete, He became for all those who obey Him the Source of everlasting deliverance,

10 when He was designated by Elohim a High Priest "according to the order of Malkitsedeq,"

Our Great Cohen Gadol

14 Therefore, since we have a great High Priest who has passed through the heavens, Yahusha the Son of Elohim, let us hold fast our Agreement.

What does it mean that he "passed through the heavens"?

Ivrim 7:26; 8:1; 9:11,12;

"The heavens" seems to be a metaphor for the "heavenly sanctuary" or the place where Yahuwah dwells

Our Allegiance

o`mologi,a "homologia" from a basic meaning speaking in agreement with a proposition or person; confession; (1) objectively, a statement of allegiance expressing binding assent and public commitment profession, acknowledgment, confession (HE 4.14); (2) subjectively, an inner commitment of loyalty to such a statement of allegiance that leads to a public expression confessing, bearing witness

Sympathetic Cohen

15 For we do not have a High Priest unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who was tried in all respects as we are, apart from sin.

sumpaqe,w - a. to be affected with the same feeling as another, to sympathize with b. in reference to the wretched, to feel for, have compassion on

Our weaknesses – the difficulties of living in human flesh (not "sin")

The Trials of Messiah

1 John 2:15-17 Mattityahu 4:1-11

#1 The Desire of the Flesh - Hunger – He accomplishes what the benay Yisrael didn’t in the wilderness – overcoming the flesh Dev 8:3

#2 The Arrogance of Life – Pride – the approval of others – putting Yah to the test, 3:9 - Devarim 6:16

#3 The Desire of the Eyes – Esteem – overcoming what we want and yielding to what Yah wants for us – Who will you Shema’? - Devarim 6:13

The Seat of Favor

16 Therefore, let us come boldly to the seat of favor, in order to receive compassion, and find favor for timely help.

!xe - "chen" - 1. favour, grace, elegance: a. of form and appearance, of a woman b. of speech 2. favour, acceptance: a. with men. b. with God

The "seat of favor" – the place where he sits – the most set-apart place

When the sin problem was satisfied, the favor of Yah was upon his people

"Grace" does not bring us to Yah, it is given to us when we walk in his ways!!!

The Limits of the Levi Cohen Gadol

5:1 For every priest taken from among men is appointed on behalf of men in matters relating to Elohim, to offer both gifts and offerings for sins,

2 being able to have sympathy for those not knowing and being led astray, since he himself is also surrounded by weakness.

3 And on account of this he has to offer for sins – as for the people, so also for himself.

4 And no one obtains this esteem for himself, but he who is called by Elohim, even as Aharon also was.

Qualifications

The Cohel Gadol must:

Be appointed by Elohim

Be able to sympathize with the people

Tribe of Levi selected to be priests

From among men – for only men experience the "weakness" of being human

"Ignorant and going astray" Bem 15:28 - hg"g"v. – "shegagah" sin of error, inadvertence , from hg"v' - go astray, err – cf verse 30

Aharon’s calling: Shemot 28:1

Aharon’s compassion: Bem 14:5; 16:22,47;

Moshe: Bem 12:3 a very humble man

Selected by Elohim

5 So also the Messiah did not extol Himself to become High Priest, but it was He who said to Him, "You are My Son, today I have brought You forth."

6 As He also says in another place, "You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitsedeq,

Quoting Tehillah 2:7 (incarnation); 110:4 (exaltation)

The Struggles of Messiah

7 who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and petitions with strong crying and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, and was heard because of His reverent fear, 8 though being a Son, He learned obedience by what He suffered.

Teh 22:1,2, 24 he cried and was heard

Twice fulfilled:

1. When tempted by Satan, he waited…

2. When agonizing in garden, he submitted… Mattityahu 26:36-44

The Causer

9 And having been made complete, He became for all those who obey Him the Source of everlasting deliverance,

10 when He was designated by Elohim a High Priest "according to the order of Malkitsedeq,"

ai;tioj, "i-tios" - that in which the cause of anything resides, causative, causing. –"Author," "Cause"

Yeshayahu 45:17

The Recipients of Help (Salvation)

Verse 9 - for all those who obey Him

Here is perhaps the most explicit statement in the Messianic Scriptures regarding the means by which one "holds on" to the Covenant relationship with Yah

Here, salvation is given "to those who obey Him." In Acts 5:32, the Ruach HaKodesh (Set-apart Spirit) is given "to those who obey Him."

This affirms the Shema’ which dictates that obedience to the commandments is an essential component to covenant relationship (salvation) as a required faith response!

When?

He became the Source "when He was designated by Elohim a High Priest "according to the order of Malkitsedeq,"

The events of Shavuot are here seen as another milestone (a moed) event at which time Yahusha’ stepped into His role as Mediator between Elohim and men

His death at Pesach provided the means of procuring salvation, but it wasn’t until he became Cohen Gadol that He could intercede for us

Chapter 5:11-14 - Warnings Against Laziness

Ivrim 5:11-14

11 Concerning Him, the message for us is extensive and hard to explain, since you have become lazy in your hearing.

12 For although by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the elementary principles of the authority of the Oracles of Elohim. And you have become such as need milk and not solid food.

13 For everyone partaking of milk is inexperienced in the word of righteousness, for he is an infant.

14 But solid food is for the perfect whose senses have been trained by practice to discern both good and evil.

Ivrim 6:1-12

1 Therefore, leaving the message of the rulership of the Messiah, let us be carried along to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of belief toward Elohim,

2 of the teaching of immersions, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of everlasting judgment.

3 And this we shall do, if Elohim indeed permits.

4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted the heavenly gift, and have become partakers of the Set-apart Spirit,

5 and have tasted the good Word of Elohim and the powers of the age to come,

6 and fall away, to renew them again to repentance – having impaled for themselves the Son of Elohim again, and put Him to open shame.

7 For ground that is drinking the rain often falling on it, and is bearing plants fit for those by whom it is tilled, receives blessing from Elohim,

8 but if it brings forth thorns and thistles, it is rejected and near to being cursed, and ends up by being burned.

9 But we are persuaded, concerning you, beloved, of matters which are better and possess deliverance, although we speak in this way.

10 For Elohim is not unrighteous to forget your work and labor of love which you have shown toward His Name, in that you have attended to the set-apart ones, and still attend.

11 And we desire that each one of you show the same eagerness, to the entire confirmation of expectation until the end,

12 in order that you do not become sluggish, but imitate those who through belief and patience inherit the promises.

Can We Talk of Melkitsedeq, yet?

11 Concerning Him, the message for us is extensive and hard to explain, since you have become lazy in your hearing.

Sha’ul wants to dive into an examination of Melkitsedeq…but can’t yet

The information about Melki… is "extensive," literally, "much" – in other words, "there is much to say about M"

But those things are hard to explain…

e`rmhneu,w

e`rmhneu,w "hermayneu-o" from ~Ermh/j, "Hermays" who was held to be the god of speech, writing, eloquence, learning

1. to explain in words, expound: (Sophocles, Euripides), Xenophon, Plato, others.

2. to interpret, i. e. to translate what has been spoken or written in a foreign tongue into the vernacular

Hermeneutics – the science of translation / interpretation

dusermh,neutoj "dus-ermay-neutos" hard to explain

Lazy Talmidim

"11 Concerning Him, the message for us is extensive and hard to explain, since you have become lazy in your hearing"

nwqroi. – "nothroi" – lazy, sluggish, slothful, torpid

"in your hearing" = in your learning, in your interest in learning? Are you paying attention?

What prevents us from digging in deeper into the Word?

Not Yet Ready For Primetime

12 For although by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the elementary principles of the authority of the Oracles of Elohim. And you have become such as need milk and not solid food.

Lack of learning and doing results in stunted growth

stoicei/a "stoiqei-a" elements (of which the world is made); basic principles (the first principles or lessons); ABCs, building blocks; (sometimes=elemental spirits)

"Beginning"

avrch, "archay" beginning, first; origin, first cause; ruling power, authority, ruler (whether earthly or spiritual); what is elementary, elementary principle (Heb 5.12; 6.1); corner (of a cloth)

In the gospels, 1 Peter and 1&2 John – always "beginning" as in "in the beginning"

In the Ephesians 1:21, Colossians 2:10 and Ivrim 5:12; 6:1 – rule, ruler, authority

Meaning - that which came first is authoritative! Yahusha’ is authority. The principles and rules He set down "in the beginning" are authoritative.

"you need someone to teach you again the elementary principles of the authority of the Oracles of Elohim."

Drink Milk – NOT!

13 For everyone partaking of milk is inexperienced in the word of righteousness, for he is an infant.

Only babies drink milk

Side note: milk (including cow’s milk) was never intended to be a source of nourishment for people growing to maturity! Milk causes many health problems in children and adults.

"Milk" represents the easy spiritual food which is fed to those new to faith. But mature ones move on from their milk drinking days – they need adult food.

Perfect

14 But solid food is for the perfect whose senses have been trained by practice to discern both good and evil.

te,leioj - "telei-os" – in the Septuagint several times for ~lev and ~ymiT', etc.; properly, brought to its end, finished; lacking nothing necessary to completeness; perfect; of victims, perfect, without spot or blemish

~ymiT', "tammim" – complete, perfect

"Shalom" comes from a root which means "to be complete"

Discerning between good and evil

Ivrim 4:12; Yeshayahu 44:18

Ivrim 6:1-12

1 Therefore, leaving the message of the rulership of the Messiah, let us be carried along to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of belief toward Elohim,

2 of the teaching of immersions, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of everlasting judgment.

3 And this we shall do, if Elohim indeed permits.

The Message of the Rulership…

The message has to do with the "rulership" or "beginning" or "authority" of Messiah

The Fact that Messiah Yahusha’ is Ruler, King, High Priest and is one with Yahuwah – He is the authoritative voice of Creator

"Let us be carried along to maturity" – teleios – tammim – completed, perfection

The Foundation of the Message

not laying again the foundation…

of repentance from dead works,

and of belief toward Elohim,

of the teaching of immersions,

and of laying on of hands,

and of resurrection of the dead,

and of everlasting judgment.

Repentance – turning away from evil towards obedience to the Covenant is a Foundational Principle from the beginning

Where are all these principles found?

Repentance and Belief

These are the Foundational principles

These are at the core of covenantal relationship with Yahuwah

Dead works are those acts which lead to death (this is NOT a reference to the works of Torah) cf 9:14; Rom 6:21; Gal 5:19-21

Yochanan taught repentance: Matt 3:2

Yahusha’ taught repentance: Mark 1:15

Sha’ul taught repentance and faith: Acts 20:21

Immersions and Laying On Hands

A brand new New Testament thing?

NO! No such thing!

Torah teaches this (why would this surprise us?)

Bemidbar 19 the water of cleansing was required for those who had been contaminated for re-entry (or entry) into the community

Yehezqel 36:25

Laying on of hands = Commissioning into office: Bem 27:18, 23; Dev 34:9; on sacrifices: Vayiqra 1:4; 3:2; 4:4; 8:14; 16:21

Resurrection and Judgment

Resurrection known and taught by Torah and Tanak

Shemot 3:6 (Mark 12:26)

Yeshayahu 26:19; Daniel 12:2

Judgment: Ber 18:25; Yeshayahu 33:22; Dan 7:9ff

Cf. Yom Kippur – the day of judgment

Apostates Cannot Find Renewal?

4 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted the heavenly gift, and have become partakers of the Set-apart Spirit,

5 and have tasted the good Word of Elohim and the powers of the age to come,

6 and fall away, to renew them again to repentance – having impaled for themselves the Son of Elohim again, and put Him to open shame.

The Danger of Apostasy

It is impossible… - a very strong warning

Enlightenened, tasted, partakers: calls to mind (again) our forefathers in the wilderness who saw the power of Elohim and tasted of the blessing of his presence and provision

Yah swore to them… "they shall NEVER enter my rest"

Such as who continue in transgression would need to continue to make sacrifices – thus, for intentional turning away from Elohim, one would need another sacrifice to bring them back

An Illustration from "Nature"

7 For ground that is drinking the rain often falling on it, and is bearing plants fit for those by whom it is tilled, receives blessing from Elohim,

8 but if it brings forth thorns and thistles, it is rejected and near to being cursed, and ends up by being burned.

9 But we are persuaded, concerning you, beloved, of matters which are better and possess deliverance, although we speak in this way.

Elohim is not mocked, You reap what you sow! Galatians 6:7-9

The Works of Torah

10 For Elohim is not unrighteous to forget your work and labor of love which you have shown toward His Name, in that you have attended to the set-apart ones, and still attend.

The works of Torah are definitely not done away with. They are the works of loving and caring for people – attending to their needs.

11 And we desire that each one of you show the same eagerness, to the entire confirmation of expectation until the end,

12 in order that you do not become sluggish, but imitate those who through belief and patience inherit the promises.

The consistent message of Scripture is that one must continue in faith (obedience to Covenant) to secure "salvation"

Dump on this question: Will sluggards fall short of salvation?

What does it mean to be an imitator?

1 Co. 4:16; 11:1; Eph. 5:1; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:6; 2:14; 1 John 2:6

Chapter 6:12-20 - Inheriting the Promises

13 For when Elohim made promise to Avraham, since He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself,

14 saying, "I will surely bless you, and I will surely increase you."

15 And so, after being patient, he obtained the promise.

16 For men do indeed swear by the one greater, and an oath for confirmation is for them an end of all dispute.

17 In this way Elohim, resolving to show even more clearly to the heirs of promise the unchangeableness of His purpose, confirmed it by an oath,

18 so that by two unchangeable matters in which it is impossible for Elohim to lie, we might have strong encouragement, we who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the expectation set before us,

19 which we have as an anchor of the life, both safe and firm, and entering into the inside of the curtain,

20 where Yahusha has entered as a forerunner for us, having become High Priest for ever according to the order of Malkitsedeq.

Promise

evpagge,llw

1. to tell, proclaim, announce

2. to give orders, command, to order an army to be furnished

3. As a law-term, to denounce…

4. to promise, to make offers

5. to profess, make profession of

6. to demand, require

The Promises and the Oath

13 For when Elohim made promise to Avraham, since He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself,

14 saying, "I will surely bless you, and I will surely increase you."

Ber 12:1-3, 7 – a blessing, a nation, land

Ber 13:14-18 – an inheritance of land

Ber 15:4-6, 18-21 – a seed, land

Ber 17:1-8 – descendants and an inheritance

Bereshith 22:15-18 (the oath)

The Promises

A Blessing for all peoples on earth

A seed, descendants, a nation of people

An Inheritance of land (to be given to the Seed) – all the land north, south, east and west – everywhere Avram walked

The Blessing

Acts 3:26 Elohim raised up his servant and sent him first to you, to bless you by turning each one of you from your iniquities."

Romans 4:6 So even David himself speaks regarding the blessedness of the man to whom Elohim credits righteousness apart from works:

7 "Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;

8 blessed is the one against whom Yahuwah will never count sin." (quoting Tehillah 32:1,2)

9 Is this blessedness then for the circumcision or also for the uncircumcision? For we say, "faith was credited to Avraham as righteousness."

The "blessing" is forgiveness of sins and righteousness attributed to the one who places faith in Elohim and the favor which He gives to that one who obeys Him.

A Seed

[r;z< "zerah" - sowing, seed, offspring

Singular throughout Bereshith in the Promise passages

Galatians 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Avraham and to his descendant. Scripture does not say, "and to the descendants," referring to many, but "and to your descendant," referring to one, who is Messiah.

A Nation, "Descendants"

Romans 4:13 For the promise to Avraham or to his descendants that he would inherit the world was not fulfilled through the law, but through the righteousness that comes by faith.

16 For this reason it is by faith so that it may be by grace, with the result that the promise may be certain to all the descendants--not only to those who are under the law, but also to those who have the faith of Avraham, who is the father of us all

Romans 9

6 It is not as though the word of Elohim had failed. For not all those who are descended from Yisrael are truly Yisrael,

7 nor are all the children Avraham's true descendants; rather "through Yitzchak will your descendants be counted."

8 This means it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of Elohim; rather, the children of promise are counted as descendants.

Who Are Avraham’s Descendants Who Will Inherit With Him?

Galatians 3:29 And if you belong to Messiah, then you are Avraham's descendants, heirs according to the promise.

Inheritance of Land

Mattityahu 5:3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.

5 "Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth (land).

Kingdom of heaven = land

According to Galatians 3:29, those who belong to Messiah (place their faith in Him) are heirs (inheritors of this land) according to the promise made to Avraham

This Promise is For Us!

17 In this way Elohim, resolving to show even more clearly to the heirs of promise the unchangeableness of His purpose, confirmed it by an oath,

18 so that by two unchangeable matters in which it is impossible for Elohim to lie, we might have strong encouragement, we who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the expectation set before us,

19 which we have as an anchor of the life, both safe and firm

"We" are the "heirs of promise"

The Promises made to Avraham are our expectation

This expectation (inheritance of land) is our anchor of the soul (because He swore it on oath!)

The oath made to Avraham gives us strong encouragement

The 2 Unchangeable Things

18 so that by two unchangeable matters in which it is impossible for Elohim to lie, we might have strong encouragement, we who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the expectation set before us,

Yah cannot lie

Yah cannot break an oath

This oath gives us strong encouragement! Why, if our inheritance is different than Avrahams (i.e. heaven)?

The Promise in Ephesians 2

11 Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh--who are called "uncircumcision" by the so-called "circumcision" that is performed on the body by human hands--

12 that you were at that time without the Messiah, alienated from the citizenship of Yisrael and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without Elohim in the world.

19 So then you are no longer foreigners and noncitizens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of Elohim's household,

20 because you have been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Messiah Yahusha himself as the cornerstone.

The Promise in Ephesians 3

5 Now this secret (mystery) was not disclosed to people in former generations as it has now been revealed to his set-apart apostles and prophets by the Spirit,

6 namely, that through the gospel the Gentiles are fellow heirs, fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Messiah Yahusha.

(The Torah provides that Gentiles who place their faith in Yahuwah are to be regarded as full-fledged citizens and rules and privileges are fully given to them)

"Promise" in the Brit Chadashah

Acts 7:5; Rom. 4:20,21; Tit. 1:2; Heb. 6:13; 10:23; 11:11; 12:26; Jas. 1:12; 2:5; 1 Jn. 2:25

Acts 7:17; 26:6; Rom. 9:8f; 15:8; 2 Co. 7:1; Eph. 1:13; 2:12; 3:6; Heb. 4:1; 6:12, 15, 17; 7:6; 11:9, 13, 17; 2 Pet. 3:9

Inheritance in the Brit Chadashah

Inheritance - Matt. 21:38; Mk. 12:7; Lk. 12:13; 20:14; Acts 7:5; 13:19; 20:32; Gal. 3:18; 4:30; Eph. 1:14, 18; 5:5; Col. 1:12; 3:24; Heb. 9:15; 11:8; 1 Pet. 1:4

Inherit - Matt. 5:5; 19:29; 25:34; Mk. 10:17; Lk. 10:25; 18:18; Rom. 4:13; 1 Co. 6:9f; 15:50; Gal. 5:21; Heb. 1:14; 6:12; 12:17; 1 Pet. 3:9; Rev. 21:7

In What Sense Did Avraham Obtain the Inheritance?

Ivrim 6:15 And so, after being patient, he obtained the promise.

Ivrim 11:13 In belief all these died, not having received the promises, but seeing them from a distance, welcomed and embraced them, and confessed that they were aliens and strangers on the earth.

14 For those who speak this way make it clear that they seek a fatherland.

15 And yet, if they had indeed kept remembering that place from which they had come out, they would have had the chance to return.

16 But now they long for a better place, that is, a heavenly. Therefore Elohim is not ashamed to be called their Elohim, for He has prepared a city for them.

Ans: the oath Yah made sealed it as though Avram already had obtained it!

Chapter 7 - Malkitsedek

1 For this Malkitsedeq, king of Shalem, priest of El Elyon, who met Avraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,

2 to whom also Avraham gave a tenth part of all, his name being translated, indeed, first, 'king of righteousness,' and then also king of Shalem, that is, 'king of peace,'

3 without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but having been made like the Son of Elohim, remains a priest for all time.

4 Now see how great this one was, to whom even the ancestor Avraham gave a tenth of the plunder.

5 And truly, those who are of the sons of Levi, who receive the priesthood, have a command to receive tithes from the people according to the Torah, that is, from their brothers, though they have come from the loins of Avraham,

6 however, the one whose genealogy is not derived from them received tithes from Avraham, and blessed the one who held the promises.

7 And it is beyond all dispute that the lesser is blessed by the better.

8 And here it is men who die that receive tithes, but there it is someone of whom it is witnessed that he lives.

9 And one might say that through Abraham even Levi, who received tithes, gave tithes,

10 for he was still in the loins of his father when Malkitsedeq met him.

11 Therefore, if perfection were through the Levi priesthood – for by it the people were governed – why was there still need for another priest to arise according to the order of Malkitsedeq, and not be called according to the order of Aharon?

12 For when the priesthood changes, of necessity there also is a change of instruction.

13 For He of whom this is said belongs to another tribe, from which no one had attended at the altar.

14 For it is self-evident that our Master arose from Yehudah, a tribe about which Mosheh never spoke of concerning priesthood,

15 and it is abundantly clear, if another priest arises in the likeness of Malkitsedeq,

16 who has become, not according to the instruction of a command regarding the flesh, but according to the power of an endless life,

17 for He does witness, "You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitsedeq."

18 For there must be a setting aside of the former command because of its powerlessness and futility,

19 for the Instruction perfected nothing, and the bringing in of a better expectation, through which we draw near to Elohim.

20 And it was not without an oath!

21 For they indeed became priests without an oath, but He became Priest with an oath by Him who said to Him, "Yahuwah has sworn and shall not renege, 'You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitsedeq.' "

22 By as much as this, Yahusha has become a guarantor of a better covenant.

23 And indeed, those that became priests were many, because they were prevented by death from continuing,

24 but He, because He remains forever, has an unchangeable priesthood.

25 Therefore He is also able to help completely those who draw near to Elohim through Him, ever living to make intercession for them.

26 For it was fitting that we should have such a High Priest – set-apart, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens,

27 who does not need, as those high priests, to offer up slaughter offerings day by day, first for His own sins and then for those of the people, for this He did once for all when He offered up Himself.

28 For the Torah appoints as high priests men who have weakness, but the word of the oath which came after the Torah, appoints the Son forever perfected

Ivrim 7

1 For this Malkitsedeq, king of Shalem, priest of El Elyon, who met Avraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him,

2 to whom also Avraham gave a tenth part of all, his name being translated, indeed, first, ‘king of righteousness,' and then also king of Shalem, that is, 'king of peace,'

3 without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but having been made like the Son of Elohim, remains a priest for all time.

Bereshith 14:17-20

!Ay*l.[, laeξ "El Elyon" – El = Mighty One, Elyon = high, upper, most high

qd,cρ,-yKil.m; - "Malki Tsedek" – "My king is righteous" or "my righteous King"

Occurs only 3 times: Bereshith 14:18,20 and Tehillah 110:4

hn"q' "kanah" get, acquire -- 1. get, aquire : a. of Elohim as originating, creating. b. of Elohim as victoriously redeeming his people. 2. elsewhere buy; hn<qo owner, as purchaser.

Who is MalkiTsedek?

* Some Christians believe he is a pre-incarnate incarnation of Messiah

Problems: does not say he was Mal, only "like" him

* Shem – this is the rabbinical believe

Problem: why isn’t he so identified in Scripture?

* An unknown – also possible, fits verse 3!

Problem: none really, just our curiosity will not be satisfied

Was Malkitsedek Born and Did He Die?

3 without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but having been made like the Son of Elohim, remains a priest for all time.

Nothing else is said in Scripture. We have no record anywhere of his lineage – some think that this implies that Mal is Messiah

But it says he was made "like the Son…", not that he was the Son of Elohim!

Not that he didn’t have mother and father, etc…

How Great is Malkitsedek?

4 Now see how great this one was, to whom even the ancestor Avraham gave a tenth of the plunder.

5 And truly, those who are of the sons of Levi, who receive the priesthood, have a command to receive tithes from the people according to the Torah, that is, from their brothers, though they have come from the loins of Avraham,

6 however, the one whose genealogy is not derived from them received tithes from Avraham, and blessed the one who held the promises.

Giving the Tenth

Ber 14:20 "Worthy of praise is the El Elyon, who delivered your enemies into your hand." Avram gave Malchizedek a tenth of everything.

Bemidbar 18:20 Yahuwah spoke to Aharon, "You will have no inheritance in their land, nor will you have any portion among them--I am your portion and your inheritance among the sons of Yisrael. 21 See, I have given the Levi all the tithes in Yisrael for an inheritance, for their service which they perform--the service of the tent of meeting.

The Greater Gives the Blessing…

7 And it is beyond all dispute that the lesser is blessed by the better.

8 And here it is men who die that receive tithes, but there it is someone of whom it is witnessed that he lives.

9 And one might say that through Abraham even Levi, who received tithes, gave tithes,

10 for he was still in the loins of his father when Malkitsedeq met him.

Malkitsedek Greater Than Avraham

The greater blesses the lesser

Malkitsedek blesses Avraham

v8 "someone of whom it is witnessed that he lives" – we never read of Malki dieing.

Levi gave tithes to Malkitsedek (while still in Avraham)

Thus, Malkitsedek is also greater than Levi

It stands to reason that his priesthood is greater than that of Levi

A Change of Priesthood

11 Therefore, if perfection were through the Levi priesthood – for by it the people were governed – why was there still need for another priest to arise according to the order of Malkitsedeq, and not be called according to the order of Aharon?

12 For when the priesthood changes, of necessity there also is a change of instruction.

What’s Wrong With Levi?

"Perfection" or completedness could not be obtained through Levi priests, because they kept having to offer the same sacrifices, and they kept dieing!

nomoqete,w "nomothete-o" from "nomos" (law) - (1) of functioning as a law-giver legislate, make laws; passive receive, be given law (2) as ordering a matter by law enact; passive be enacted, be established

Levi enacted the Torah – the people were governed by Levi

A Different Order of Priesthood

13 For He of whom this is said belongs to another tribe, from which no one had attended at the altar.

14 For it is self-evident that our Master arose from Yehudah, a tribe about which Mosheh never spoke of concerning priesthood,

15 and it is abundantly clear, if another priest arises in the likeness of Malkitsedeq,

16 who has become, not according to the instruction of a command regarding the flesh, but according to the power of an endless life,

17 for He does witness, "You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitsedeq."

Yahusha’ of Yehudah

The genealogies show Yahusha’ to be of the tribe of Yehudah

Yehudah was not allowed to partake in the service in the sanctuary

The command regarding the flesh was the command which appointed only Levi to serve in the tent

The testimony of Yahuwah about his Son Messiah is in Tehillah 110

The Need to Set Aside Levi

18 For there must be a setting aside of the former command because of its powerlessness and futility,

19 for the instruction perfected nothing, and the bringing in of a better expectation, through which we draw near to Elohim.

20 And it was not without an oath!.

 

The Weakness of the Levi Priesthood

avsqenh,j "asthenace" - sick; weak; delicate (of parts of the body); helpless, powerless, inadequate

avnwfelh,j "anophelace" - useless(ness); harmful, unprofitable; of controversies harmful, futile

"the instruction (command) perfected nothing" = the specific instruction regarding Levi as priestly tribe. Their perpetual offerings never perfected anyone (see 10:1). This was put in place after Malkitsedek had pre-figured the eternal priesthood of Messiah.

The "Better" Expectation

krei,ttwn "kreitone" - better; greater, superior (1) of persons superior, better, higher in rank; substantivally more important person; (2) of what is more advantageous, better, more useful

The Malkitsdekian priesthood provides for a superior expectation, i.e. the promise of eternal life could not come through the "forgiveness" provided by the work of Levi. People still kept dieing. But once perfected at the return of Yahusha’, our expectation of inheritance can be fulfilled

A Better Covenant

21 For they indeed became priests without an oath, but He became Priest with an oath by Him who said to Him, "Yahuwah has sworn and shall not renege, 'You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitsedeq.' "

22 By as much as this Yahusha has become a guarantor of a better covenant.

23 And indeed, those that became priests were many, because they were prevented by death from continuing,

24 but He, because He remains forever, has an unchangeable priesthood.

25 Therefore He is also able to help completely those who draw near to Elohim through Him, ever living to make intercession for them.

How is the Renewed Covenant Better?

It was confirmed on oath. "by 2 unchanging things…."

Because the Cohen Gadol of the Renewed Covenant does not die. He continues to live forever as our Mediator.

(More later….)

The Cohen Gadol’s Character

26 For it was fitting that we should have such a High Priest – set-apart, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens,

27 who does not need, as those high priests, to offer up slaughter offerings day by day, first for His own sins and then for those of the people, for this He did once for all when He offered up Himself.

The Qualities of Our Cohen Gadol

o[sioj "hosios" used of what is sanctioned by the supreme law of Elohim; (1) of persons who live right before Elohim holy, devout, dedicated, pure, set-apart (from sin)

a;kakoj "akakos" on innocent; unsuspecting

avmi,antoj "amiantos" on pure, undefiled, unstained

cwri,zw "chopizo" separate; pass. separate oneself, be separated

u`yhlo,j "hupsaylos" high, proud (arrogant), exalted, object of pride or value, uplifted (arm); u`yhlo,teroj higher, above

Weak Men, Strong Elohim

28 For the Torah appoints as high priests men who have weakness, but the word of the oath which came after the Torah, appoints the Son forever perfected

Here again, "weakness" is a description of the limitations of humanness, not of "sin-nature." Humans die.

The Son was "made complete" and lives forever.

Chapter 8 - The Need For a New Agreement

The Cohen

!h,Ko "cohen" priest - hN"huK – "cehunnah" priesthood

principal officer or chief ruler, priest

"serving as a minister"; kohen seems to connote "confidential advisor"

The understanding of "cohen" must also be derived from the context of passages which speak of one.

Remember the qualifications of the cohen gadol in 5:1-4? A selected representative before Yah

Ivrim 8:1-13

1 Now the summary of what we are saying is: We have such a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Greatness in the heavens,

2 and who serves in the set-apart place and of the true Tent, which Yahuwah set up, and not man.

3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and slaughters. So it was also necessary for this One to have something to offer.

4 For if indeed He were on earth, He would not be a priest, since there are priests who offer the gifts according to the Torah,

5 who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly, as Mosheh was warned when he was about to make the Tent. For He said, "See that you make all according to the pattern shown you on the mountain."

6 But now He has obtained a more excellent service, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better Agreement, which was constituted on better promises.

7 For if that first Agreement had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second.

8 For finding fault with them, He says, "See, the days are coming," says Yahuwah, "when I will establish with the house of Yisra'el and with the house of Yehudah a renewed Agreement,

9 not like the Agreement that I made with their fathers in the day of my seizing them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Mitsrayim, because they did not remain in My Agreement, and I disregarded them," says Yahuwah.

10 "Because this is the Agreement that I shall make with the house of Yisra'el after those days, says Yahuwah, giving My Instructions in their mind, and I shall write them on their hearts, and I shall be their Elohim, and they shall be My people.

11 "And they shall by no means teach each one his neighbor, and each one his brother, saying, 'Know Yahuwah,' because they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them.

12 "Because I shall forgive their unrighteousness, and their sins and their lawlessnesses I shall no longer remember."

13 By saying, 'renewed,' He has made the first obsolete. Now what is obsolete and growing old is near disappearing.

The Summary

1 Now the summary of what we are saying is:

Kefa,laion "kephalaion" - the chief or main point, the principal thing, from kefalh,, - head,

cf. Hebrew, tyviare – beginning, head

That which is in the beginning is chief, head or principal thing, main point

Cf. Messiah as our head

avrch, - beginning, first

Moschiach Our Cohen Gadol

We have such a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Greatness in the heavens,

2 and who serves in the set-apart place and of the true Tent, which Yahuwah set up, and not man.

skhnh, "skaynay" - tent, temporary shelter; tabernacle (of a worship place); house, home, dwelling-place

Cf. Hebrew, lh,ao - tent, home, habitation

!K'v.mi "mishkan" - dwelling-place, `tabernacle'

The Heavenly Tabernacle

5 who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly, as Mosheh was warned when he was about to make the Tent. For He said, "See that you make all according to the pattern shown you on the mountain."

crhmati,zw "kraymatizo" warn; direct, instruct; reveal, disclose; be called, have the name of, to give a divine oracle

Cf. 11:7; 12:25; Mt 2:12,22; Lk 2:26; Acts 10:22; Rom 7:3; 11:4

The Pattern

Shemot 25:9 According to all that I am showing you--the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furnishings--you must make it exactly so. (also 40; 26:30; 27:8)

tynIεb.T; - "tavneet" - construction, pattern, figure -- 1. app. originally construction, structure. 2. pattern, acc. to which anything is to be constructed, blueprint, plan

The Work of the Cohen

3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and slaughters. So it was also necessary for this One to have something to offer.

4 For if indeed He were on earth, He would not be a priest, since there are priests who offer the gifts according to the Torah,

What does he have to offer? Answer to come in 9:4

His priesthood is of a higher order – so performing at an earthly sanctuary would have been inferior

What’s Better About It?

6 But now He has obtained a more excellent service, inasmuch as He is also Mediator of a better Agreement, which was constituted on better promises.

His "service" is "far-superior"

krei,ttwn "kreitone" - better; greater, superior (1) of persons superior, better, higher in rank; substantively more important person; (2) of what is more advantageous, better, more useful

Mediator

mesi,thj, "mesitays" - one who intervenes between two, either in order to make or restore peace and friendship, or to form a compact, or for ratifying a covenant: a medium of communication, arbitrator, go-between

The Fault With the Former

7 For if that first Agreement had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for a second.

8 For finding fault with them, He says, "See, the days are coming," says Yahuwah, "when I will establish with the house of Yisra'el and with the house of Yehudah a renewed Agreement,

9 not like the Agreement that I made with their fathers in the day of my seizing them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Mitsrayim, because they did not remain in My Agreement, and I disregarded them," says Yahuwah.

Whose Fault Was It That Caused the Former Agreement to Fail?

8 For finding fault with them….9 because they did not remain in My Agreement

The people rejected Yah’s leadership and his Covenant

Remaining in the Agreement means obeying the Commands, Yochanan 15:1-14

Did Yah Neglect Our Fathers?

9 because they did not remain in My Agreement, and I disregarded them," says Yahuwah. (this is also the Septuagint reading)

avmele,w "amele-o" - neglect, be unconcerned about, care nothing for someone or something (HE 2.3); absolutely pay no attention, to be careless of, to neglect

Yirmyahu 31:32 For they violated that agreement, even though I was a husband to them," says Yahuwah.

l[;G" "ga’al" (rather than "ba’al") abhor, loathe, be vilely cast away, fall. Cf. Vayiqra

Did the rabbis miscopy this word?

Why the Need For a New Covenant?

They broke the former, annulling it – it was voided by the people’s disobedience

The Former Agreement was weak

Why did Yah bother with the Former?

The people needed a present solution

It was a picture of the perfect solution.

10 "Because this is the Agreement that I shall make with the house of Yisra'el after those days, says Yahuwah, giving My Instructions in their mind, and I shall write them on their hearts, and I shall be their Elohim, and they shall be My people.

11 "And they shall by no means teach each one his neighbor, and each one his brother, saying, 'Know Yahuwah,' because they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them.

12 "Because I shall forgive their unrighteousness, and their sins and their lawlessnesses I shall no longer remember."

13 By saying, 'renewed,' He has made the first obsolete. Now what is obsolete and growing old is near disappearing.

What’s New?

vd'x' adj. new, renew, repair, make anew

In what sense is the Agreement (covenant) new?

A whole different agreement?

The same agreement re-offered?

An agreement based upon different criteria?

The Torah

Was the Torah to be on the heart of the agreeing party under the Former agreement? Yes!

Dev 11:26,27; 26:16; 30:6-14

Then, what is the difference between the Former agreement and the renewed agreement as far as the Torah is concerned?

(Nothing)

The Difference is in the effectiveness of the blood sacrifice!

Is the Former Covenant Obsolete?

Yes.

Is there still a need for Levi priests?

Chapter 9 - The Earthly and Heavenly Sanctuaries

The Layout of the Tent

1 Now the first Agreement indeed had requirements of service and the physical set-apart place.

2 For a Tent was prepared: the first part, in which was the lampstand, and the table, and the showbread, which is called the Set apart Place.

3 And after the second veil, the part of the Tent which is called Most Set-apart,

4 to which belonged the golden censer, and the ark of the Agreement overlaid on all sides with gold, in which were the golden pot that held the manna, and the rod of Aharon that budded, and the tablets of the covenant,

5 and above it the cherubim of esteem were overshadowing the place of atonement – about which we do not now speak in detail.

Righteous Requirements

dikai,wma, in the Septuagint very often for qxo, hq'xu, and jP'v.mi; for hw"c.mi, Deut. 30:16; 1 Kings 2:3; plural occasionally for ~ydIWQPi

that which has been deemed right so as to have the force of law; what has been established and ordained by law, an ordinance

2. a righteous act or deed:

The Articles of the Set-Apart Place

Lampstand - Shemot 25:31ff; 37:17ff - made of gold, 3 branches springing from either side of main stem, 7 flower-shaped lamp holders

Table of "showbread" Shemot 25:30 – made of acacia wood overlaid with gold, 2 cubits by 1 cubit by 1 and a half high, on it was placed the ~ynIίP' ~x,l,ξ – "bread of the face"

These were in the set-apart place

The "Second Curtain"

Shaul uses this phrase to distinguish it from the veil which is at the entrance of the tent

tk,rop' – "parochet" – the curtain separating the set-apart place from the

~yvi(d"Q\h; vd<qoο – "qodesh haqodashim"

Exod. 26:31; 35:12; 39:34; 40:21; Lev. 4:6; Num. 4:5

The Most Set-Apart Place

The ark of the Testimony containing the two tablets of the testimony

Also contained the pot of manna and the rod of Aharon

Was the Alter of Incense and in the Qodesh or in the Qodesh HaQodashim?

Shemot 30:6 "Set it in front of the curtain (parochet) which is over the chest of the Testimony in front of the cover which is over the Testimony which I have appointed for you there."

Vayiqra 16:18 "go out unto the altar…"

What Was in the Ark of the Testimony?

2 Tablets – Shemot 25:16,21,22; Devarim 10:1-5

Pot of manna – Shemot 16:33ff – "beside the ark"

Aharon’s Rod that budded – Bemidbar 17:1ff – "in front of the Testimony"

Copy of the Torah – Devarim 31:26 – "beside the ark"

The Work of the Cohen Gadol

6 And these having been prepared like this, the priests always went into the first part of the Tent, accomplishing the services.

7 But into the second part the high priest went alone once a year, not without blood, which he offered for himself and for sins of ignorance of the people,

8 the Set-apart Spirit signifying this, that the way into the Most Set-apart Place was not yet made manifest while the first Tent has a standing,

9 which was a parable for the present time in which both gifts and slaughters are offered which are unable to perfect the one serving, as to his conscience,

10 only as to foods and drinks, and different washings, and fleshly regulations imposed until a time of setting matters straight.

What Were the Regular Services of the Priests in the Qodesh?

Trim the lamps – Shemot 27:20ff

Burn Incense – Shemot 30:7ff

Put fresh bread on table – Vayiqra 24:8ff

Sins of Ignorance

Vayiqra 4:2 "Tell the sons of Yisrael, 'When a person sins by straying from any of Yahuwah's commandments which must not be violated, and violates any one of them--

hg"g"v. "shegagah" - sin of error, inadvertence, unintended straying away

Vay 5:17; 4:13, 22, 27; 5:1, 14; 6:1 etc.

The Parable

The way into Yah’s presence was not yet revealed – blood of animals could not do it, thus is was done only once a year to hint at this

Animal sacrifices cannot perfect the conscience of the worshipper

These were "righteous rules for the flesh" until the time of the coming in of the new order – Priests had washings and libations to perform Vay 16:24; Bemidbar 6:15

Messiah’s Blood Cleanses the Conscience

11 But Messiah, having become a High Priest of the coming good matters, through the greater and more perfect Tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation,

12 entered into the Most Set-apart Place once for all, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood, having obtained everlasting redemption.

13 For if the blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkling the defiled, sets apart for the cleansing of the flesh,

14 how much more shall the blood of the Messiah, who through the everlasting Spirit offered Himself unblemished to Elohim, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living Elohim?

 

 

A Conscientious Cleansing

Because his death fulfills the requirement of a human death for sin

Bemidbar 19 – the water of cleansing, a mixture of ashes of the red heifer, cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet wool.

Dead works – works of the flesh, sinful habits and deeds – Certainly NOT the works of the Spirit which are the obedient acts of doing the commandments!

Death is Required for the Inheritance

15 And because of this He is the Mediator of a renewed covenant, so that, death having taken place for redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant, those who are called might receive the promise of the everlasting inheritance.

16 For where a covenant is, it is necessary for the death of the covenanted one to be established.

17 For a covenant over those dead is firm, since it is never valid while the covenanted one is living.

18 Therefore not even the first covenant was instituted without blood.

19 For when, according to Torah, every command had been spoken by Mosheh to all the people, he took the blood of calves and goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people,

20 saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which Elohim commanded you."

21 And in the same way he sprinkled with blood both the Tent and all the vessels of the service.

22 And, according to the Torah, almost all is cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.

Death is Required

In human terms, an inheritance is legally passed on to the heir (sons) when the father dies.

Shemot 24:8 - So Moshe took the blood and splashed it on the people and said, "This is the blood of the covenant that Yahuwah has made with you in accordance with all these words."

Remission - a;fesij "aphesis" - forgiveness, cancellation (of sins); release (of prisoners)

An Offering Done Only Once

23 It was necessary, then, that the copies of the heavenly ones should be cleansed with these, but the heavenly ones them selves with better slaughter offerings than these.

24 For Messiah has not entered into a Set apart Place made by hand – figures of the true – but into the heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of Elohim on our behalf,

25 not that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters into the Set-apart Place year by year with blood not his own.

26 For if so, He would have had to suffer often, since the foundation of the world. But now He has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the offering of Himself.

27 And as it awaits men to die once, and after this the judgment,

28 so also the Messiah, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, shall appear a second time, apart from sin, to those waiting for Him, unto deliverance.

 

Once For All

The penalty for sin is death – one death

The repetitious offerings of the priests indicated that those animal deaths didn’t pay the price for sin.

Messiah’s death did.

Death and later, judgment

Messiah’s death and later, deliverance see Yeshayahu 53:10-12

Apart from sin – see Ivrim 4:15 For we do not have a High Priest unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who was tried in all respects as we are, apart from sin.

Chapter 10 - The Instruction Has Been Replaced

1 For the instruction, having a shadow of the good matters to come, and not the image itself of the matters, was never able to make perfect those who draw near with the same slaughter offerings which they offer continually year by year.

2 Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered? Because those who served, once cleansed, would have had no more consciousness of sins.

3 But in those offerings is a reminder of sins year by year.

The Instruction Was a Shadow

What law was a shadow?

Greek o` no,moj = Hebrew "torah" or "chukah" or "mishpat"

Bemidbar 15:29,30 You must have one instruction (Hebrew "torah") for the person who sins unintentionally, both for the native born among the sons of Yisrael and for the resident foreigner who lives among them. But the person who acts presumptuously, whether native born or a resident foreigner, insults Yahuwah. That person must be cut off from among his people.

Individual Torahs

Vayiqra 6:2, 7, 18; 7:1, 7, 11, 37; 11:46; 12:7; 13:59; 14:2, 32, 54, 57; 15:32; 26:46; Bemidbar 5:29f; 6:13, 21; 15:16, 29; 19:2, 14; 31:21

Each of the types of offerings had its particular rules (torah)

Situations involving cleansing had their own individual "torah" (instructions)

So, what "torah" is Sha’ul referring to in verse 1? (See clue in verses 2-4)

Shadow and Image

skia "skia" - shadow, shade; foreshadowing, shadow, faint outline

Is being a "shadow" meant to be a diminutive thing?

eivkw,n "eikown" - likeness, image; form, appearance; statue

Yahusha’ is the eivkw,n of Elohim. (Col 1:15; 2 Cor 4:4) Formulaically, we might say "Yahusha’ = Elohim"

But animal sacrifice does not = sacrifice of Yahusha’

A Reminder of Sin

3 But in those offerings is a reminder of sins year by year.

Yom Kippur is the day of remembrance of sin – the day when Yah remembers and takes action – thus, the believe that the final judgment will take place at this "appointed time."

But for those whose "sins are remembered no more" (renewed agreement promise) there is peace on Yom Kippur

Ivrim 10:4-7

4 For it is impossible for blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.

5 Therefore, coming into the world, He says, "Slaughtering and meal offering You did not desire, but a body You have prepared for Me.

6 "In burnt offerings and offerings for sin You did not delight.

7 "Then I said, ‘See, I come – in the scroll of the book it has been written concerning Me – to do Your desire, Elohim.’ "

Impossible

Why was it "impossible for blood of bulls and goats to take away sins"?

Moral defilement cannot be removed by material means

The death of the animal is a substitute, but does not cleanse (free) the conscience of sinful habits

Tehillah 40

Massoretic Hebrew text reads:

6 Sacrifice and offering you did not desire; my ears you have opened: burnt offering and sin offering you have not required.

7 Then said I, Look, I come: in the scroll of the book it is written of me,

8 I delight to do your will, O my Elohim: yes, your law (Heb. Torah) is within my heart.

Septuagint reads, "a body you have prepared for me"

Teh 40 cannot easily be connected to boring the servant’s ear

The Will of Yah

8 I delight to do your will, O my Elohim: yes, your law (Heb. Torah) is within my heart.

The will of Elohim is to obey Torah

Yirmyahu 31:33 "This is the Agreement I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares Yahuwah. "I will put my Torah in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their Elohim, and they will be my people.

Ivrim 10:8-10

8 Saying above, "Slaughter and meal offering, and burnt offerings, and offerings for sin You did not desire, nor delighted in," which are offered according to the Torah,

9 then He said, "See, I come to do Your desire, Elohim." He takes away the first to establish the second.

10 By that desire we have been set apart through the offering of the body of Yahusha Messiah once for all.

The Four Offerings of Tehillah 40

xb;z< "zebach" sacrifice, slaughter -- the common and most ancient sacrifice, whose essential rite was eating the flesh of the victim at a feast

hx'n>mi "minchah" gift, tribute, offering, grain offering

hl'[o "olah" whole burnt-offering, the offering of worship

ha'j'x] "chata’ah" sin, sin-offering, ransom offering

He takes away the first to establish the second

Does this indicate that the system of offerings is done away with, or that the Levi priesthood is done away with?

He is certainly NOT talking about doing away with the whole "Torah" which is an essential component of the renewed agreement.

The desire of Messiah does a work in us of setting us apart!

Once for all = not repeatable, one cannot sacrifice him over again (see vs 26)

Ivrim 10:11-14

11 And indeed every priest stands day by day doing service, and repeatedly offering the same slaughter offerings which are never able to take away sins.

12 But He, having offered one slaughter offering for sins for all time, sat down at the right hand of Elohim,

13 waiting from that time onward until His enemies are made a footstool for His feet.

14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are being set apart.

He Sat Down

The work of the Levi priests was never done. They had to continually (day by day) offer the same sacrifices

Messiah’s sacrifice was a ransom for sin and was done once. He "put away sin." Then he sat down – the Ruach is indicating that His work is non-repeatable, and therefore, finished.

The seated cohen gadol indicates an acceptance of his sacrifice as full payment.

Tehillah 110

A psalm of David. An oracle of Yahuwah to my Master: "Sit down at my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool!"

2 Yahuwah extends your dominion from Zion. Rule in the midst of your enemies!

3 Your people are a freewill offering in the day of your strength, in your set-apart splendor at the breaking of dawn. Yours is the dew of your youth.

4 Yahuwah makes this promise on oath and will not revoke it: "You are an eternal priest after the pattern of Melchizedek."

5 The Master at your right hand strikes down kings in the day he unleashes his anger.

6 He judges nations, he amasses corpses, he shatters the head of the earth, greatly.

7 From the rushing water along the road he drinks; then he raises his head.

Ivrim 10:15-18

15 And the Set-apart Spirit also witnesses to us, for after having said before,

16 "This is the covenant that I shall make with them after those days, says Yahuwah, giving My Instructions into their hearts, and in their minds I shall write them,"

17 and, "Their sins and their lawlessnesses I shall remember no more."

18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer a slaughter offering for sin.

No Memory

The renewed Agreement stipulates that Elohim will no longer remember our sins and lawlessnesses

!A[' "avown" – iniquity, guilt, misdeed, sin, wrongdoing – wrong done

taJ'x; "hata’at" – sin, breach of civil law, i.e. failure to live up to expectations – right thing not done

This is why there is no longer a need for a sacrifice. (Messiah cannot be sacrificed again, anyway) His death was ONCE.

Ivrim 10:19-22

19 So, brothers, having boldness into the entryway of the Most Set-apart Place by the blood of Yahusha,

20 by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us, through the curtain, that is, His flesh,

21 and having a High Priest over the House of Elohim,

22 let us draw near with a true heart in completeness of belief, having our hearts sprinkled from a wicked conscience and our bodies washed with clean water.

Boldness to Enter

parrhsi,a "paraysia" - openness, frankness (openly, plainly, freely); boldness, confidence, assurance

The entryway is into the very presence of Yahuwah – the parochet

Hearts sprinkled – the priest sprinkled the blood on nearly all things

Bodies washed – the mikvah symbolizes being cleansed from sin

Ivrim 10:23-25

23 Let us hold fast the Agreement of our expectation without wavering, for trustworthy is He who promised.

24 And let us consider one another for stimulation unto love and good works,

25 not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging, and so much more as you see the Day coming near.

Holding Fast

Why do we have to "hold fast" to the Agreement? if "once saved always saved"? (vs26 speaks of those who don’t)

Consider one another (consider the lilies of the field, consider Yahusha Ivrim 3:1)

Not forsaking the assemblies – what assemblies?

"The Day" – Yom Teruah or Yom Kippur? Or Yom Shekulo Shabbat (the day that is all Shabbat), or the Day of Yahuwah?

Ivrim 10:26,27

26 For if we sin purposely after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a slaughter offering for sins,

27 but some fearsome anticipation of judgment, and a fierce fire which is about to consume the opponents.

Ivrim 10:28-31

28 Anyone who has disregarded the Torah of Mosheh dies without compassion on the witness of two or three witnesses.

29 How much worse punishment do you think shall he deserve who has trampled the Son of Elohim underfoot, counted the blood of the Agreement by which he was set apart as common, and insulted the Spirit of favor?

30 For we know Him who has said, "Vengeance is Mine, I shall repay, says Yahuwah." And again, "Yahuwah shall judge His people."

31 It is fearsome to fall into the hands of the living Elohim.

Why the Many Warnings?

Why does Sha’ul in Ivrim warn his readers so many times about "falling away"?

2:1-3 3:8 3:12 4:1 4:11 6:4-6 10:26

If a believer could "partake of the Ruach HaKodesh…" and then couldn’t actually "fall away" then these many passages have no meaning!

Truth – anyone who is partaking in covenant relation with Yah through Messiah CAN fall away and lose his salvation if he does not follow through and continue in the faith walk (ergo – the reason for the writing of Hebrews 11)

Devarim 29:18-21

18 Beware that the heart of no man, woman, clan, or tribe among you turns away from Yahuwah our Elohim today to pursue and serve the elohim of those nations; beware that there is among you no root producing poisonous and bitter fruit.

19 When such a person hears the words of this oath he secretly blesses himself and says, "I will have peace though I continue to walk with a stubborn spirit." This will destroy the watered ground with the parched.

20 Yahuwah will be unwilling to forgive him, and his intense anger will rage against that man; all the curses written in this scroll will fall upon him and Yahuwah will obliterate his name from memory.

21 Yahuwah will single him out for judgment from all the tribes of Yisrael according to all the curses of the covenant written in this scroll of the instruction.

"Once saved, always saved"?

From beginning to end, the Scriptures nowhere teach any such false, nefarious doctrine such as is a part of many Christian theologies.

With agreement to His covenant, Yah always expects a faith response of obedience to all his applicable commandments.

Any believer in Messiah who thinks he can be "blessed" and still go his own way (Dev 29:19), will be singled out for judgment with all the plagues written in the scroll – and this means "losing his salvation"!

Ivrim 10:32-34

32 But remember the former days, when, after you were enlightened, you endured a great struggle with sufferings.

33 On the one hand you were exposed to reproaches and pressures, and on the other hand you became sharers with those who were so treated,

34 for you sympathized with me in my chains, and you accepted with joy the seizure of your possessions, knowing that you have a better and a lasting possession for yourselves in the heavens.

Ivrim 10:35-39

35 Do not, then, lose your boldness, which has great reward.

36 For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the desire of Elohim, you receive the promise:

37 "For yet a little while – He who is coming shall come and shall not delay."

38 "But the righteous shall live by belief, but if anyone draws back, my being has no pleasure in him."

39 But we are not of those who draw back to destruction, but of belief to the preservation of life.

A Paraphrase of Habakkuk 2:3,4

"For there is yet another vision about the appointed time; it will speak of the End and it will not deceive. Though it may tarry, await it, for it will surely come; it will not delay…. But the righteous person shall live by his faith"

Sha’ul interprets "the appointed time" of Habakkuk as the "coming of Messiah" in Ivrim 10.

The one who shrinks back will not partake of the inheritance, but those who "endure to the end" will inherit.

Note the contrast between the "one who shrinks back" and the one who "endures to the end"

The one who shrinks back will not partake of the inheritance, but those who "endure to the end" will inherit.

True "faith" is characterized by "endurance" or "perseverance"

Chapter 11 - The Faith Response

12:1 says: We too, then, having so great a cloud of witnesses all around us, let us lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race set before us

Chapter 11 describes for us "faith" as characterized by perseverance through trial

Ephesians 2:8 "By favor you are saved through faith" – in other words, Yah’s favor saves you by your patient and enduring trust in Him

What Scriptural Faith is NOT

The modern, secular concept of faith defines it as "something possible, hopefully true, but not certain"

"Something that has no or little evidence to support, but nonetheless, we are wishing is or will come to be"

That which we cannot prove, but we put our confidence in it in spite of its lack of physical demonstration

Faith

pi,stij, (1) active, as belief directed toward a person or thing confidence, faith, trust, reliance on (MT 9.2); (2) absolutely, without an object; (a) as the essential Christian religion (the) faith (CO 1.23); (b) as recognition and acceptance of Christian teaching faith (JA 2.17); (c) as a decision to be faithful and loyal to the Christian religion promise, pledge, commitment (1T 5.12); (d) as a conviction that brings certainty faith, assurance (RO 14.22); (e) as a Christian virtue, especially along with hope and love characterizing believers (1TH 1.3); (3) passive; (a) of what brings trust and confidence from others faithfulness, fidelity, reliability (TI 2.10); (b) as what inspires confidence pledge, (means of) proof, guarantee (AC 17.31); (4) objectively, as the content of what is believed doctrine, (the) faith

"Faith" in the Tanach

In Habakkuk 2:4, faithfulness is from the Hebrew:

hn"Wma/ "emunah" firmness, steadfastness, fidelity, faithfulness

From the root !m;a' (aman) to confirm, support, uphold (Qal); to be established, be faithful (Niphal); to be certain, i.e. to believe (in Hiphil).

When we say "amein" we mean "surely, certainly"

What else in Scripture is described as "firm"?

Reliable

Tehillah 119:86 All your commands are reliable (emunah).

90 You demonstrate your faithfulness (emunah) to all generations. You established the earth and it stood firm.

138 The rules you impose are just, and absolutely reliable (emunah).

Firmness, certainty

The basic root idea is firmness or certainty. In the Qal it expresses the basic concept of support and is used in the sense of the strong arms of the parent supporting the helpless infant.

A "believer" can have "faith" (confidence, firmness) in Messiah because of the firmness of his established promises

To Be Certain

In the Hiphil (causative), it basically means "to cause to be certain, sure" or "to be certain about," "to be assured." In this sense the word in the Hiphil conjugation is the biblical word for "to believe" and shows that biblical faith is an assurance, a certainty, in contrast with modern concepts of faith as something possible, hopefully true, but not certain.

Thus true faith "supports, upholds" Torah values

Ivrim 11:1

And faith is the substance of what is expected, the proof of what is not seen.

"substance" 3:14 "For we have become partakers of Messiah if we hold fast the beginning of our substance firm to the end"

Proof = "conviction" assurance – (parallel to "substance") unwavering confidence that something is so

(What about belief in false teaching?)

Ivrim 11:2

"For by it, the elders bore witness"

The elders are the fathers, prophets and those that have come before us

The elders bear witness – cf 12:1 "Since we are surrounded by such a great cloud of witnesses"

This does not refer to angels or believers watching from heaven. It has to do with the testimony our fathers laid down before us.

11:3

By faith we perceive that the worlds were completed by the spoken word of Elohim so that what is seen came about from what is not visible

Rom 1:20 "the invisible things of Elohim are perceived through the things that are made"

This "perception" is an exercise of the mind brought about by the understanding given by the Ruach HaKosesh

Cf. Yahuchanon 1:1-3; Bereshith 1 "and Elohim said…"

11:4-7 Faith Before the Flood

4 By belief, Hevel offered to Elohim a greater slaughter offering than Qayin, through which he obtained witness that he was righteous, Elohim witnessing of his gifts. And through it, having died, he still speaks.

5 By belief, Hanok was translated so as not to see death, "and was not found because Elohim had translated him." For before his translation he obtained witness, that he pleased Elohim.

6 But without belief it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to Elohim has to believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of those who earnestly seek Him.

7 By belief, Noah, having been warned of what was yet unseen, having feared, prepared an ark to save his house, through which he condemned the world and became heir of the righteousness which is according to belief.

Faith of our Fathers

Hevel knew Yah’s will regarding sacrifice and trustingly offered the one that he required

Hanok was obedient in all things – he "walked with Elohim"

Noach obeyed in spite of intense ridicule from his peers

Faith means knowing that Yah will ‘reward’ or do the things he has promised

11:8-12

8 By belief, Avraham obeyed when he was called to go out to the place which he was about to receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going.

9 By belief, he sojourned in the land of promise as a stranger, dwelling in tents with Yitshaq and Ya'aqov, the heirs with him of the same promise,

10 for he was looking for the city having foundations, whose builder and maker is Elohim.

11 By belief also, Sarah herself was enabled to conceive seed, and she bore a child when she was past the normal age, because she deemed Him trustworthy who had promised.

12 And so from one, and him as good as dead, were born as numerous as the stars of the heaven, as countless as the sand which is by the seashore.

Avraham’s Faith

His faith was demonstrated by going out from his homeland and his fathers to the place Yah promised

He sojourned there with his son and son’s son, even though the time was not yet come to inherit it

The city with foundations is the new Jerusalem which comes down… Rev 21:19

Sarah’s Faith

Why did "Sarah laugh"? Ber 18:10-15

She is commended as one "who deemed Him trustworthy who had promised"

She was enable to bear a son "because of her faith" in what Yah promised

Ivrim 11:13-16

13 In belief all these died, not having received the promises, but seeing them from a distance, welcomed and embraced them, and confessed that they were aliens and strangers in the land.

14 For those who speak this way make it clear that they seek a fatherland.

15 And yet, if they had indeed kept remembering that place from which they had come out, they would have had the chance to return.

16 But now they long for a better place, that is, a heavenly. Therefore Elohim is not ashamed to be called their Elohim, for He has prepared a city for them.

The Actions of All Who Believe

patri,j poλt. fem. of pa,trioj, of one's fathers, one's fatherland, country

They were seeking for that which was their fathers –what was promised to their fathers

Those people of Faith went to the land of promise as strangers and aliens because they knew (in faith) that it would someday be theirs!

They could have gone back to where they came from, but they did not – because they had confidence in Yah’s word.

Ivrim 11:17-22

17 By belief, Avraham, when he was tried, offered up Yitshaq, and he who had received the promises offered up his only brought-forth son,

18 of whom it was said, "In Yitshaq your seed shall be called,"

19 reckoning that Elohim was able to raise, even from the dead, from which he received him back, as a type.

20 By belief, Yitshaq blessed Ya'aqov and Esau concerning that which was to come.

21 By belief, Ya'aqov, when he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Yoseph, and did reverence on the top of his staff.

22 By belief, Yoseph, when he was dying, made mention of the outgoing of the children of Yisra'el, and gave orders concerning his bones.

Faith of the Patriarchs

Avraham was willing to (meaning-he did it) sacrifice his only son at the command of Yah

Avraham believed in the resurrection

Yitschak, near death, blesses sons (B27)

Ya’acov, near death, blesses sons (B49)

Yoseph, near death, talks about returning his bones to the fatherland

11:23-28

23 By belief, Mosheh, having been born, was hidden three months by his parents, because they saw he was a proper child, and were not afraid of the sovereign's command.

24 By belief, Mosheh, having become great, refused to be called the son of the daughter of Pharaoh,

25 choosing rather to be afflicted with the people of Elohim than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a time,

26 deeming the reproach of Messiah greater riches than the treasures in Mitsrayim, for he was looking to the reward.

27 By belief, he left Mitsrayim, not fearing the wrath of the sovereign, for he was steadfast, as seeing Him who is invisible.

28 By belief, he performed the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, lest he who destroyed the first-born should touch them.

Mosheh’s Faith

avstei/oj (a;stu a city); 1. of the city; of polished manners (opposed to a;groikoj rustic), genteel, own-bred, polite, courteous, refined 2. elegant (of body), comely, fair

Moshe refused the benefits of Egyptian royalty, preferring the inheritance of his forefathers, instead

Reproach of Messiah - reproach, insult, abuse; disgrace, shame – accepting the same abuse that Messiah endured because he believed he would receive the inheritance

11:29-31

29 By belief, they passed through the Red Sea as by dry land, and when the Mitsrayim tried it, they were drowned.

30 By belief, the walls of Yeriho fell, having been surrounded for seven days.

31 By belief, Rahav the whore did not perish with those who did not believe, having received the spies with peace.

Faith of the Offspring of Yisrael

Israelites, under Mosheh’s command, walked through the sea

Under Yahusha’ son of Nun, Yisrael believed Yah’s command, surrounded Yericho and its walls fell

Even Rahav acted in faith. How? (I thought she broke the commandment when she lied about the spies)

11:32-34 – The Giants of Faith

32 And what more shall I say? For the time would fail me to relate of Gid'on and Baraq and Shimshon and Yiphtah, also of Dawid and Shemu'el and the prophets,

33 who through belief, overcame reigns, worked righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions,

34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, became mighty in battle, put foreign armies to flight.

11:35-38 Perseverance

35 Women received back their dead by resurrection. And others were tortured, not accepting release, to obtain a better resurrection.

36 And others had trial of mockings and floggings and more, of chains and imprisonment.

37 They were stoned, they were tried, they were sawn in two, they were slain with the sword. They went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being in need, afflicted, mistreated,

38 of whom the world was not worthy – wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes of the earth.

39,40 – The Receiving of the Promise

39 And having obtained witness through the belief, all these did not receive the promise,

40 Elohim having provided what is better for us, that they should not be made perfect apart from us.

The promise of inheritance has not yet been fulfilled. The inheritance has not yet been distributed as a reward. "WE" are to be included in this reward of land. (We are not going to heaven – sorry to disappoint you). Our inheritance is with our fathers in the promised land on earth. With them, we will be made complete (perfect).

 

Written by David M Rogers

www.BibleTruth.cc

Notes Taken: 2005

Published: June 2010